BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYThe success of an organization can be derived from the efficiency and effectiveness of its resource use. Some organizations can do well with minimum resources, but there are others which do not do well even with abundant resources. The difference, between both depends on the method of allocation of resources and the use to which they are put. As a result, the importance of resources management in achieving organizational success cannot be under estimated. And so the need for a planning and control, management of any university must always look into the post, present and plan for the future. The performance is helpful in planning for the future, in sense that it provides basic for estimating the probable future operating conditions.Fundamentally, management is the con-ordination of human efforts that is the accomplishment of goals by utilizing the effort of other people. The management process may be viewed as the total management effort operating in a particular endeavour that include that basic management functions planning,. Co-ordination and control to accomplish specific objectives.One of the most important approaches that has been developed for facilitating effective performance of these management functions is budgeting.A budget is a plan quantified in monetary terms prepared and approved subject to a defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated or expenditure to be incurred during the period and the capital employed to attain a given objective. Budget has been defined by different people, Economist defined it as an official document showing the expected revenue and expected expenditure for a given fiscal year.Cost accountant defined it a plan quantified in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated or expenditure to be incurred during that period and the capital employed to attain a given objective.To the management accountant, it is a formal expression of managerial plans. Its quantities and financial terms encompassing different phases of business operations and aimed at helping management towards the attainment of organization objectives.Planning, which according to Ogbozor (1999) involves mental effort by which the executives anticipate the possible census or factors that may effect or change the activities and objectives of a particular organization. With the end in view of controlling the nature and direction of changes and determining what measures or actions necessary to accomplish pre-determined goals, is an important function of budgeting.Budgeting is concerned about making plans for the future, implementing these plans and monitoring activities to see whether they conform to the plans.Co-ordination is the synchronization of individual action with the result that each sub-division of an entity effectively works towards the common objectives. It involves the interpersonal relationship of people in the work situation, as they exchange view, ideas, prejudices and other attitudes. Budgeting provides for the co-ordinations of activities, particularly through master budget which summarize all the supporting budgets.Planning and controlling functions of management has budgetary control as its accounting tools. Budgetary control may be described as a managerial activity that relate to responsibility centres of an organization. It is also the use of budgets for assignment of responsibilities, planning and controlling performance and guiding managerial and other activities towards the achievement of organizational goals.There are various budgeting techniques like zero-base budgeting, planning programming budgeting system, traditional budgeting. Budgeting control techniques and budgets is a key factor in planning and controlling function of management in Nigeria Universities.It tried to find out if the profitability of universities depends on the effective budgetary control system is use. To know which of the budgetary techniques is best used for efficient management and period of which it lovers.

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1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of the study is to determine and suggest techniques that can be used efficient and effective management .To find out how universities can forecast and plan future managerial operations and co-ordination to ensure harmony.To know what brings about failure in many universities.To find out which of the budgetary technique is best used for efficient management of the universities.

1.3 RESEEARCH QUESTIONS1. Do budget serve as an effective means of planning the universities activities.2. How does ESUT (Enugu) regards the preparation of annual budget and its subsequent use to control the activities of the university as a strategic decision. 3. What factor bring about failure in many universities. 4. Which of the budgetary techniques is best used for efficient management and what period does ESUT operational budget cover.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Ho Budgeting has no significance effect (p<.05) in financial management of higher institution. Hi Budgeting has significance effect in the financial management of higher institution. 2. Ho There is no significant relationship (p<.05) between the preparation of annual budget and strategic decision.Hi There significant relationship (p>.05) between The preparation of annual budget and strategic decision. 3. Ho There is no significant relationship (p<.05) between the failure of universities and budget implementation. Hi There is significant relationship between the failure of universities and budget implementation. 4. Ho There is no significant impact (p<.05) between restriction to one budgetary technique and performance of universities.

1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY The study will contribute a lot human endeavours especially as the control would reveal variance between actual and budgeted result.Then therefore significant in that it will. (a) Determine whether budgets and budgetary control technique is a key factor in planning and controlling functions of the management in the universities.(b) Ensure that universities operates within the scope of its corporate objectives.(c) Evaluate the role played by top level management staff on budgetary process and its adherence to the budget. (d) Limit the great difference between actual and budgeted performance.

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1.6 DELIMINATION OF STUDYDetermining from the crucial role played by budgets and budgetary technique in managerial decisions process their use is by no means restricted to any one from of educational institution.As a result of this the study is limited to educational institutions not the whole of the country or state but within Enugu zone in Enugu state, therefore a major limitation of its study is its focus on the input of application of budget and budgetary control, techniques on the profitability of Enugu State.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMSi Budgeting : This is a formal process for planning through the use of estimated financial and accounting data. ii Budgeting control : This involves, the use of budget for assigning responsibilities planning and control performance and guiding management and other activities towards the achievement of organisational goal. Control performance and guiding management and other activities of organisational goals. iii Planning : This is managerial function that concerns the identification of objectives and aims and choosing the appropriate policies and methodology necessary to achieve these objectives. iv Survey Research : This is the systematic gathering of information from respondent for the purpose of understanding and or predicting some aspect of the population of interest.

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